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Financial Times: Από τον Κεμάλ Ατατούρκ στον Ερντογάν – Ημερομηνίες Σταθμοί στην Ιστορία της Σύγχρονης Τουρκίας

A timeline of modern Turkey: from Ataturk to Erdogan

1923
Turkish Republic established by Mustafa Kemal Ataturk.

1946
First democratic elections held.

1950
In second election, Ataturk’s Republican People’s party loses power to Adnan Menderes’ Democratic party.

1960
Coup orchestrated by military junta. Menderes is put on trial and executed in 1961. Power then handed back to civilians.

1971
With Turkey becoming increasingly violent and its economy weakened, the military mounts a second coup and the government resigns after armed forces issue a memorandum. Martial law imposed for two years. Republican People’s party returns to power in 1973.

1980
Turkey’s bloodiest and most consequential coup. After mounting chaos, General Kenan Evren takes power. Hundreds of deaths and 50 executions follow, as do more than 500,000 arrests. The army formally cedes power in 1983, but Evren remains president until 1989. The constitution drawn up by the military in 1982 remains in place today, although with amendments.

1994
Recep Tayyip Erdogan is elected mayor of Istanbul for the Islamist Welfare party with 25 per cent of the vote.

1996
Welfare party head Necmettin Erbakan becomes Turkey’s first Islamist prime minister, forming a coalition with other parties.

1997
Army triggers what becomes known as the “postmodern coup”. After a show of strength featuring tanks in Ankara, the military pushes Erbakan out of power but does not assume control of the government. His party is later banned.

1999
Mr Erdogan serves a four-month prison sentence for reading out an Islamist poem.

2002
Mr Erdogan’s newly formed and Islamist-rooted AK party sweeps to power after a financial and political crisis, although he himself is banned from political office because of his conviction.

2003
No longer banned, Mr Erdogan becomes prime minister.

2007
Controversy over parliament’s selection of a new president to replace a departing secularist head of state leads the military to declare itself “an absolute defender of secularism”. This is seen as a threat to the government. Mr Erdogan holds early elections and increases his majority.

2008
The AKP narrowly survives an attempt to close down the party and ban its leading members from office. The country’s constitutional court fails by one vote to uphold the measure. But 10 out of the 11 judges find the party guilty of “anti-secular activity”. The ruling came after the deputy head of the court paid a visit to the military’s incoming chief of staff. Both the military and the judiciary are key elements of the country’s secularist old order.

2008-10
Scores of army officers are imprisoned in high-profile political trials championed by Mr Erdogan’s then allies in an Islamic movement known as the Gulenists, which has many followers in the police, prosecution service and judiciary.

2011
Mr Erdogan and the AKP win a third term with almost 50 per cent of the vote.

2013
A split occurs between Mr Erdogan and the Gulenists as prosecutors launch corruption investigations into Mr Erdogan’s circle and the government removes thousands of law enforcement officials in response.

2014
Mr Erdogan becomes Turkey’s first directly elected president with 52 per cent of the vote. Military officers and other detainees are released from prison as the legal cases championed by the Gulenists collapse.

2015
In two elections, in June and November, the AKP first loses and then regains its parliamentary majority as the backdrop of violence increases. Terrorist attacks are blamed on both Isis and the outlawed Kurdistan Workers party or PKK.

2016
Violence intensifies with a series of attacks by both Isis and the PKK, notably an attack on Istanbul airport in June. A coup attempt against Mr Erdogan is launched in July.

Πηγή: Financial Times