Turkish Republic established by Mustafa Kemal Ataturk.
First democratic elections held.
In second election, Ataturk’s Republican People’s party loses power to Adnan Menderes’ Democratic party.
Coup orchestrated by military junta. Menderes is put on trial and executed in 1961. Power then handed back to civilians.
With Turkey becoming increasingly violent and its economy weakened, the military mounts a second coup and the government resigns after armed forces issue a memorandum. Martial law imposed for two years. Republican People’s party returns to power in 1973.
Turkey’s bloodiest and most consequential coup. After mounting chaos, General Kenan Evren takes power. Hundreds of deaths and 50 executions follow, as do more than 500,000 arrests. The army formally cedes power in 1983, but Evren remains president until 1989. The constitution drawn up by the military in 1982 remains in place today, although with amendments.
Recep Tayyip Erdogan is elected mayor of Istanbul for the Islamist Welfare party with 25 per cent of the vote.
Welfare party head Necmettin Erbakan becomes Turkey’s first Islamist prime minister, forming a coalition with other parties.
Army triggers what becomes known as the “postmodern coup”. After a show of strength featuring tanks in Ankara, the military pushes Erbakan out of power but does not assume control of the government. His party is later banned.
Mr Erdogan serves a four-month prison sentence for reading out an Islamist poem.
Mr Erdogan’s newly formed and Islamist-rooted AK party sweeps to power after a financial and political crisis, although he himself is banned from political office because of his conviction.
No longer banned, Mr Erdogan becomes prime minister.
Controversy over parliament’s selection of a new president to replace a departing secularist head of state leads the military to declare itself “an absolute defender of secularism”. This is seen as a threat to the government. Mr Erdogan holds early elections and increases his majority.
The AKP narrowly survives an attempt to close down the party and ban its leading members from office. The country’s constitutional court fails by one vote to uphold the measure. But 10 out of the 11 judges find the party guilty of “anti-secular activity”. The ruling came after the deputy head of the court paid a visit to the military’s incoming chief of staff. Both the military and the judiciary are key elements of the country’s secularist old order.
Scores of army officers are imprisoned in high-profile political trials championed by Mr Erdogan’s then allies in an Islamic movement known as the Gulenists, which has many followers in the police, prosecution service and judiciary.
Mr Erdogan and the AKP win a third term with almost 50 per cent of the vote.
A split occurs between Mr Erdogan and the Gulenists as prosecutors launch corruption investigations into Mr Erdogan’s circle and the government removes thousands of law enforcement officials in response.
Mr Erdogan becomes Turkey’s first directly elected president with 52 per cent of the vote. Military officers and other detainees are released from prison as the legal cases championed by the Gulenists collapse.
In two elections, in June and November, the AKP first loses and then regains its parliamentary majority as the backdrop of violence increases. Terrorist attacks are blamed on both Isis and the outlawed Kurdistan Workers party or PKK.
Violence intensifies with a series of attacks by both Isis and the PKK, notably an attack on Istanbul airport in June. A coup attempt against Mr Erdogan is launched in July.
Πηγή: Financial Times